Objectives and Methodology
First : Objectives
As previously indicated, the 2006 Establishments' Wage Structure and distribution Survey is the first of its type to be conducted in the Kingdom of Bahrain with a primary goal of collecting data utilised as basic information about wage structure and distribution for the Public and Private Sectors in addition to the characteristics of these establishments to identify the changes taken place on local labour market and establish a data base which will assist in studying the characteristics of these establishments. The collection of such details provides opportunity to evaluate general framework of policies that aim to organize and develop local labour market to conform to regional and international developments. The survey's objectives may be summarized in the following:
- To identify the employment structure according to social and economic characteristics.
- To identify wages, salaries, working hours and average wage structure.
- To study the number of actual working days and shifts.
- To maintain details of establishments according to economic activity, capital ownership structure and the commencement year of the economic activity.
- To identify the employees occupational composition and skill level.
The survey methodology relied basically on recommendations, definitions and criteria issued by the United Nations Statistical Office and International Labour Organisation concerning Labour surveys in addition to reviewing certain other experiments conducted in this field by GCC and Arab States. The survey was conducted through sample taking and its methodology is summarized in the following:
1. COUNTING UNIT :
Operating Private and Public Sector organizations were selected from those insured with GOSI and PFC's records.
2. FRAMEWORK :
The survey's Sample was chosen from GOSI and PFC's records in which one or more employees are registered within a financial year (February 2006).
3. INCLUSION :
Establishments from different Kingdom of Bahrain's Governorates in which one or more employees are employed and have been included in the survey's framework while organizations pursuing agricultural business have been excluded.
4. SAMPLE :
• Samples from the Private Sector
Sample distribution was made according to the non-probability sampling or also called the cut-off sampling which relies on placing certain variable percentage for each category of the community subject of the study, provided such percentages shall be considered in the projection field. This method is usually used in establishment related surveys where large establishments are included in the sampling in order to avoid the existence of the important percentage of the sample within the small size establishments where lack of response is considered fairly high therein. The changes in structure distribution, average wages, number of working hours and labour structure in large establishments are identical to the changes that take place on all establishments' levels.
The following two presumptions were used to distribute the survey Sample according to the activity and number of employees:
• First Presumption: Selecting establishments with 200 employees or more and distribute the rest according to the optimum allocation of NEYMAN design.
• Second Presumption: Selecting all the establishments with 200 employees, select half the establishments with volumes varying from 100 and 199 employees, and the rest to be distributed according to Optimum allocation of NEYMAN design.
Taking into consideration that NEYMAN design differs from the Random allocation by relying on a variable that measures homogeneity percentage between the community members who belong to the same category. If harmony exists between individuals of a similar category or strata, the observation percentage shall be small and if differences exist between them, the observation percentage shall be great.
The second presumption which provides importance to large establishments and takes into consideration the harmonization factor has been adopted. It is observed from these tables that, when the relative sampling method is adopted, the number of establishments in the textile sector is 87 while according to NEYAMN method; the sample contains 41 establishments only in textile sector due to wage harmony therein.
In accordance wit the approved assumption, a sample with a volume of 1164 establishments was withdrawn from the General Organisation for Social Insurance (GOSI) .
Establishment's average wages was chosen as a variable to calculate the percentage of harmonization or difference between the community units and employees within establishments are chosen according to the following:
• The entire employees of Establishments with ten employees or less were included.
• Ten employees were randomly selected from establishments with ten or more employees.
• Public Sector Sample
Owing to conformity of employees wages within the Private Sector, 5 Ministries and 5 semi-government organisations were selected in accordance with the framework maintained by the (PFC), taking into consideration the peculiarity of wage systems and workforce structure therein.
The selection of 50 employees only from each organisation that falls within the criteria while sample employees have totaled to 500.
5. SCOPE :
The survey form comprises the following :
5.1 Identification Data:
The objectives and every basic detail of the establishment commencing from its business commencement, address, capital ownership, economic activity, normal daily working hours and working days were all covered in the survey identification data.
5.2 Establishment's Questionnaire:
The details cover every aspect that concerns employees of the establishment according to occupational category level, wages, allowances, in kind benefits, family allowances, wage remuneration payments, training, employee leaving the service, their compensation, indemnity, employment difficulties, future plans, establishment's cessation and reason thereof.
5.3 Employee Questionnaire:
These details cover the identification details, social and economic characteristics of the employee like, the name, CPR number, sex, age, address, nationality, marital status, educational level, scientific specialization, occupation, working hours (normal & extra), wages & salaries, benefits and allowances, indemnity, bonuses, wage payment mode, deductions, service years, experience, shifts, nature of contract and training.
These details shall be derived for all economic activities whether manufacture activities, health, education, building or constructional industries ….etc while agricultural activities have been excluded.
6. SURVEY CONDUCTING PERIOD :
The data collection period has taken up to one and a half months (from 15th April until 31st May 2006).
7. TIME REFERENCE :
The time reference for survey data was determined as follows:
A fiscal year that extends from 01.01.2005 until 31.12.2005 according to a calendar year and in case of a variation in the fiscal year, data shall be collected according to the nature of the financial system used in one of the years in which six months or more are included within the financial year 2005.
With the exception from the actual days and total employees, in addition to amounts paid within the calendar month of March 2006.
Within the month of March 2006 and the exception of irregular bonuses, gratuities and training during the year 2006.
8 DATA COLLECTION METHOD :
The two-stage direct contact method for collecting data of Establishment's Wage Structure and Distribution Survey 2006, the following two stages were applied:
8.1 At the first stage, the researcher got acquainted with the officials of the establishments that are subject to survey within area of his operation and has submitted a letter illustrating the survey, its importance and objective. He also handed over the survey form and requested them to complete the details concerning their establishment and set a date to receive it. He also requested an appointment to complete details of employees selected within the Sample.
8.2 At the second stage, the researcher checked the establishment's data with its officials and afterwards filled in the information given by the employees at the time determined by the proprietor of the establishment.
8.3 If the independent economic activities vary administratively and financially from each other within the establishment and detailed information for each individual activity is available, a separate form shall be allocated for each one. If it is impossible to allocate a separate form, one form shall be allocated for the main activity of the establishment.
9. SURVEY IMPLEMENTATION STAGES :
The Establishments wage structure and Distribution Survey 2006 is like any other statistical survey that goes through the following three basic implementation stages:
9.1 Preparation Stage :
A stage in which objectives have been defined and crystallized, study international recommendations related to the survey, view other countries experiments, define concepts and definitions, design forms, tables, sampling manner and volume, data collection manner, revision, coding, writing programmes for data entry and processing, selecting and training employees, and conduct the pretest.
9.2 Field work stage:
The stage in which collection and revision of data was made in the field to verify being comprehensive and consistency taking into consideration their accuracy and the importance of established principles to review the form clauses to enable the researcher benefit thereof.
9.3 Data preparation and publishing stage:
The stage in which data are being revised, coded and entered in the computer under quality control measures, conformity followed by publishing.
10. THE STAFF :
Title Survey Manager Project manager Field work head Field Registrar Field Group Leader Researcher Office Work head Editing & coding Group leader Editing & coding clerk Data Entry
clerk Programmer Translator
No of employees 1 1 1 1 3 25 1 2 4 4 2 1
11. MEDIA CAMPAIGN :
In this clause, a media campaign that precedes the data collection process for the purpose of encouraging and prompting the officials in the selected establishments within the sample's vocabulary to co-operate with the researchers in which articles and press conferences both in Arabic and English languages to explain the objectives and manner of execution purposes.
12. SURVEY FRAMEWORK ADJUSTMENT :
During the field operations, it was clearly visible that economic activities relied on from GOSI records includes social and other activities not covered by the survey, therefore, the survey base was amended through excluding establishments operating in the social sector like churches, sporting, local and co-operative societies. Individual establishments, international organisations and fishing boats were also excluded.
13. PERCENTAGE OF RESPONSE :
Communications have been made with 1174 covered by the Survey from Both Sectors Public (government & semi-government) and Private. After frequent visits, the result for form filling was as follows :
* Travel of Est. owner or Est. under maintaince
On this basis, the response percentage was within 15.7% (164+20) :1174 which is a reasonable limit in establishment surveys. The Sample of establishments operating in the Private sector represents total registered establishments with General Organisation for Social Insurance during the month of February 2006 which are operating in non-agricultural and non-social activities which amounted to 26885.
14. MAGNIFICATION MARKS :
Preference was made to the magnification marks taking into consideration the lack of response percentage. As for the establishments that ceased their operation or do not exist but have submitted their number of employees to GOSI during the month of February 2006 and a suitable projection mark was calculated therefore in order to estimate their number within the entire community.
If a projection mark against the number for not existing establishment was applied in reality by 3396 establishment, the establishments that have ceased operation shall be 3670 from the total number of 26885 establishments that have submitted the number of their workforce during the month of February 2006.
Its worth noting that, the projection marks have been determined first according to establishments levels for a complete community representation on economic activities level and establishment size. In a second step, the projection workforce marks have been extracted according to the establishment's economic activities, size, sex and nationality.
Last Update: Thursday 17 May 2007