Survey's Most Important Results
CHAPTER ONE : ESTABLISHMENTS
The survey results indicate that the numbers of establishments operating in the Private Sector are estimated at 19 thousand unit distributed according to the following economic activities:
Diagram No.1 : Establishments distribution by economic activity
These establishments employ about 239,300 employees and the distribution of establishments according to their size indicates that these units have a volume of less than 5 employees and their percentage reaches to 49.5% from the total establishments while the larger establishments employing over 100 employees represent only 1.4% of the total establishments.
Diagram No.2: Establishments' distribution by workforce size
The establishments operating in the Private sector with a full Bahraini capital of BD16,585/- which is equal to 87.3% of the total establishments existing in Bahrain. The establishments with foreign capital without any Joint stock companies are 1471, which is 7.7% of the total Private Sector's establishments while the remaining about 5.0% acquires a joint capital between Bahrainis and foreigners.
The establishments were questioned during the survey whether there are any difficulties in employing certain professions during the year 2005 and answers varied according to the establishment's activities where the percentage of establishments that have encountered difficulties in employment have reached to 17.2% of total establishments. This percentage rises to about 52% in the health Activities , 30% in the transportation, storing and communications Activities , and 27% with the educational institutions.
Diagram No. 3: Percentage Distribution of Establishments facing difficulties in employing certain profession during 2005
It is apparent that more than one third of the establishments have their plans to increase the workforce during the upcoming 12 months . This percentage varies from 25% in the electricity, water and gas Activities to 69% in educational institutions and about 45% in the health Activities
Diagram No. 4: Percentage Distribution of Establishments having plan to increase their workforce during the upcoming 12 months
These establishments intend to increase their workforce by 62 thousand employees distributed between 18 thousand Bahrainis and 44 thousand non- Bahrainis and taking into consideration that these figures look high but manifest directions to be deeply analysed.
Table No. 1: Distribution of Workforce intended to be employed during the
upcoming 12 months
CHAPTER TWO: WORKFORCE
Workforce volume in establishments is estimated at 288,400 employees, 39,800 of them are in government organisations, 9300 employees in semi-government organisations and 239,300 in the Private Sector.
Table No. 2: Distribution of Workforce (In thousands) by to sector, sex and nationality
Bahraini employees represent 35% of the total workforce and this percentage increases to 85.4% in the government sector against 67.7% in the semi-government sector while the Private Sector Percentage reaches to 25.4%.
Diagram No. 5: Distribution of Workforce by sector and nationality
The Trade and repair Activity holds the first rank in workers employment percentage where more than one quarter of paid workers in this activity is located followed by the building and construction which occupies 23.9% of the workforce followed by the manufacturing with 18.8% of the workforce.
Diagram No. 6: Percentage distribution of workforce by
establishment's main economic activity
The large sized establishments of over than 100 employees occupy 40% of the total workforce; the middle sized establishments occupy 23.6% of the total workforce while the small establishments occupy 9.5% of the total paid Employees .
Diagram No. 7: Percentage Distribution of workforce by establishment size
As for the workforce distribution in the Private Sector according to nationality, main economic activity of the establishment, the survey results indicates that the majority of Bahrainis exists mainly in banking and financial Activities with a percentage of 72.7% and in the electricity, water and gas Activities represent 62.5% while in other activities, the results indicates that non-Bahrainis dominate the majority of operating positions.
Diagram No. 8: Workforce distribution by Nationality and
establishments' main economic activity
On the other hand, it is clearly visible from the survey results that approximately 23.1% of the Bahraini employees are working in clerical positions, 18.4% in subsidiary engineering and 16% in scientific, technical and humanities specialists.
Diagram No. 9: Percentage distribution of workforce by nationality and profession
As for non-Bahraini employees, which represents 38.4%, they exist in subsidiary engineering profession such as construction, building and maintenance, and in cleaning, reception and kitchen service profession in which they represent 21.6% thereof.
The analysis clearly indicates that 82% of the workforce enjoys a permanent contract while 13.8% with temporary contracts and 3.2% with no contract. These percentages vary according to nationalities, where the percentage of Bahrainis workforce with permanent contract reaches to 93.3% against 75.9% with the non-Bahraini workforce.
Diagram No. 10: Distribution of workforce by nationality and nature of contract
As for the workforce education level, the survey results confirms that education level of 48.1% of non-Bahraini paid workforce does not exceed the intermediate stage while 20.3% stands for the education level of Bahrainis.
Diagram No. 11: Distribution of workforce by nationality and education level
The survey results also indicates that the percentage of workforce whose experience does not exceed five years narrows between Bahrainis and non-Bahrainis and reaches to one third of the workforce while the percentage of experienced workforce varies according to sectors. The percentage of workforce with experience exceeding 15 years reaches to about 43% in the Public Sector against 23% in the Private Sector.
Diagram No. 12: Distribution of workforce by nationality and years of
Diagram No. 13: Distribution of workforce by sector and years of
CHAPTER THREE: WAGE DISTRIBUTION
The wage average during the month of March 2006 has reached to about BD322/- and rises to about BD304/- for males against BD414/- for females and in comparison with the Bahraini workforce whose average wage reaches to BD495/-, the wage of non-Bahraini workforce averages to BD230/- .
Diagram No. 14: Average wage level (in Bahraini Dinar) during the month
of March 2006 by Sex and Nationality
Table No. 3: Average wage level wage level (in Bahraini Dinar) during the month
of March 2006 by Sector, Nationality and sex
The survey results, on the other hand, provide that the average wage during the month of March 2006 reached to BD607/- in the Government Sector against BD945/- in the semi-government sector and BD251/- in the Private sector.
Diagram No. 15: Average wage level (in Bahraini Dinar) during the month
of March 2006 by nationality and sector
The results also indicate that the highest average wage for Private Sector employees was in the Banking & Insurance Activity amounted to BD1053/- while the lowest wage average was BD115/- in the community & personal service activities.
The highest average wage for Bahrainis has reached to BD945/- in the Electricity Activity and the lowest recorded was BD229/- in the community & personal service activities while non-Bahrainis average wage in the Banking & Insurance Activity amounted to BD1486/- and the lowest average wage amounted to BD96/- in the community & personal service activities.
Diagram No. 16: Average wage level (in Bahraini Dinar) at the Private Sector during the
Month of March 2006 by nationality and establishment's main economic activity
The survey results indicate that the wage levels vary according to professions from BD1008 for business and administration managers to BD144/- for workers in services professions.
Diagram No. 17: Average wages level (in Bahraini Dinar) during the month of March 2006 by nationality and main professions Groups
Detail Analysis; on the other hand indicate that the average wage is strongly correlated with the educational level where it reaches to 3.5 times of the average wage of Masters Holders and about 5 times the average wage of the PhD holders.
Diagram No. 18: Average wages level (in Bahraini Dinar) during the month
of March 2006 by nationality and educational level
Average wage also increases with the years of experience and results have evidenced that average wage has reached to BD185/- for workers with experience not exceeding 5 years against BD657/- for workers whose experience exceeds 20 years.
Diagram No. 19: Average wages level (in Bahraini Dinar) during the month of
March 2006 by nationality and years of working experience
CHAPTER FOUR: WAGE STRUCTURE
The wage consists of a basic salary at 84.5%, regular allowances at 7.8%, family allowance at 1.9%, the in-kind earnings at 1.9% along with the overtime payment which represents 4.3% of the employees wage. The wage structure comparison between Bahraini and non-Bahraini employees does not show any difference between the two Nationalities except in the in-kind earnings and overtime payment which represent 3% and 5.7% respectively from the total wage of non-Bahrainis against 0.6% and 2.8% for the Bahraini employees.
Table No. 4: Wages Structure (in Percentage) during the month of March 2006 by nationality
Table No. 5: Wages Structure (in Percentage) during the month of March 2006 by the Sector and Establishment's Economic activity
Note for Table (4 & 5) : Figures may not add to totals due to rounding.
The basic wage represents the biggest portion of the total wage and represents 80% of whatever profession or economic activity of the establishment with the exception of the electricity, water and gas Activity in addition to the manufactured Activity .
Diagram No. 20: Percentage of basic wage from the total wage according to
Nationality & Profession
CHAPTER FIVE: WORKING HOURS
The average weekly working hours during the month of March 2006 reached to 48.6 hours. Results show that the weekly average working hours for males are 49.5 while it reached to 43.5 for the females and reaches to about 51.5 for non-Bahraini employees against 43.2 for the Bahraini employees.
Diagram No. 21: Average number of normal weekly working hours by sex & nationality
Table No. 6: Average number of normal working hours by Establishment sector
Nationality and sex
The comparison between the sectors shows that the average working hours in the Government and Semi-Government Sectors do not exceed 39 hours while it rises to 51 hours limit in the Private Sector.
Diagram No. 22: Average number of normal weekly working hours by Nationality and Establishment's Main Economic Activity
Average number of normal weekly working hours reaches to its highest levels in the restaurants and hotels Activity and in community social and personal services Activities where it is estimated at 60.0 and 56.8 hours per week respectively taking into consideration that this average is higher than 50 hours in the manufacturing and in trade and repair Activities .
As for professions, it is evident that employees in sales come in the first rank with regard to number of working hours per week with an average reaching to 56.6 hours and increases to about 58.7 hours for non-Bahraini employees and 48.6 hours for Bahrainis. On the other hand, the average working hours for Public Administration and Business Managers, and Specialists in scientific and technical subjects amounts to 44.4 and 41.8 hours per week respectively.
Diagram No. 23: Average number of normal weekly hours by nationality and profession
CHAPTER SIX: WORKING DAYS
The number of average working days per week is estimated at 5.9 and such average increases to 6.1 with non-Bahraini workers against 5.6 days for Bahraini workers.
Diagram No. 24: Average number working days per week by sex and nationality
Table No. 7: Average number of working days per week by establishment's sector,
Nationality and Sex
The average number of working days as evident by the results indicate are either equal or exceed 6 days a week in most of the Economic Activities with the exception of electricity, water and gas Activity (5.5 days), transportation, storing and communications (5.6 days), banks and insurance (5.2 days) and educational institutions (5.4 days) .
Diagram No. 25: Average number of working days per week by Nationality and
Establishment's Main Economic Activity
On other side, it was evident through data analysis according to profession that, the average of working days per week either equals or exceeds 6 days in manual profession while it does not exceed 6 days in intellectual professions.
Diagram No. 26: Average number of working days per week by Nationality and profession
Last Update: Thursday 17 May 2007